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The U.S. changes as it industrializes. Early 1800s.
Hartnett Social Studies
What is an "agrarian society"?
Agricultural/ farming way of life
What are the steps in making fabric from sheep's wool?
Shearing the wool, carding wool into slivers, spinning the slivers into thread, weaving (on a loom) the thread into fabric
Who was Samuel Slater?
Slater brought designs of spinning machines from G.B. and built his own textile factories in New England.
What are textiles?
What successful businessman financed Slater's mills?
What was the nickname for girls that came from farms to work in the mills?
What source powered the textile mills?
Why was the Northeast the area where mills/ factories were first built?
Presences of streams with run off from melting. Population of workers. Merchant trading ships and ports.
What was the shift from hand tools to power driven machinery called?
What did James Hargreaves invent?
The first mechanical spinning wheel, called the "spinning jenny".
What did Richard Arkwright invent and what made it important?
A spinning machine called "the water frame". It made stronger thread.
What is the process of making large numbers of identical goods in great quantities called?
What invention by Eli Whitney allowed for the replacement of individual parts in guns?
Who was Sarah Bagley? What did she do?
She was a "Lowell girl" who fought for better working conditions in the factories by forming the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association.
What are organizations that workers form to improve their working conditions?
When workers protest unsafe and unjust working conditions by refusing to work until their demands are met it is called?
In 1840 the federal government set a workday limit of how many hours a day?
A person who leaves a country to live somewhere else is called?
A person who arrives in a country to live after leaving another country is called?
Early immigrants (in the 19th Century) who to the U.S. came mostly from what three countries?
Ireland, Great Britain and Germany
People who believed the newcomers and unlimited immigration would destroy American institutions were called?
A new anti-immigration political party was formed in 1849. What was it called? What were the members often called?
The American Party. The "Know Nothings".
Free African Americans who moved north usually worked what kind of jobs?
Men: Service jobs like house servants, waiters, barbers etc. Women: laundresses, dressmakers, cooks etc.
What contributed to deadly diseases in the crowded cities at this time?
Polluted water and lace of sanitation.
What was a dangerous water born disease that killed many at this time?
What were some attractions to urban life for the people?
Movie theaters and concerts as well as book and magazine publishing. Also, there were cafes, libraries etc.
What does "urban" mean?
If someone lives in a "rural" area where do they live?
In the country, open area.
What new "class" of people developed by 1840 as personal income grew?
The middle class
What is leisure time?
Time when you don't have to work!
Who led the movement to increase and improve education for females?
With so many more people traveling by the 1830s and 1840s more roads were needed. Roads that charged fees or tolls were called?
What was the easiest way (in that time) to move goods and people?
What system connected waterways?
What famous canal was built in New York all the way from the Hudson River to Lake Erie? What was its nickname?
The Erie Canal also referred to as "Clinton's Big Ditch".
What became the busiest route for moving people west in the 1820s to 1840s?
The Erie Canal
By the 1830s what became a major part of transportation on the waterways?
What were the advantages of trains as the new transportation?
Could... 1. go anywhere tracks could be put down. 2. Go faster 3. Haul more and 4. Operate all year.
What were some of the dangers of early trains?
Sparks set fields on fire and early engines sometimes jumped the tracks.
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